# Assignment: Variables

Name:

Independent (Experimental, Manipulated, Treatment) Variable – That factor which is measured, manipulated, or selected by the experimenter to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon. In an experiment, we test whether the independent causes the dependent.

Dependent (Outcome) Variable – That factor which is observed and measured to determine the effect of the independent variable, i.e., that factor that appears, disappears, or varies as the experimenter introduces, removes, or varies the independent variable. In an experiment, this is the outcome we are trying to change by manipulating the independent.

More detailed descriptions of these categories can be found in the instructor notes.

Identify the independent and dependent variables for each of the following research statements (NOTE: These are not actual research results):

Research Answer 1: Girls who are in first grade are better at fine motor skills than boys who are in first grade.

Independent variable:

Dependent variable:

Research Answer 2: In elementary school age children, above average height children are not chosen as leaders by their classmates more than are children of below average height.

Independent variable:

Dependent variable:

Research Answer 3: In a middle class, suburban, public school district in which a child is expected to meet the standards of a set curriculum, a child who is under five years of age upon entrance to kindergarten is no more likely to be ready for first grade in one year than a child who is five years of age or more at the time of entrance to kindergarten.

Independent variable:

Dependent variable:

Research Answer 4: Higher socioeconomic fourth graders are no more mature in motor development than their lower socioeconomic counterparts.

Independent variable:

Dependent variable:

Research Answer 5: SAT preparation programs do not affects SAT test performance.

Independent variable:

Dependent variable:

Research Answer 6: Male teachers are not more effective career counselors with high school students than female teachers.

Independent variable:

Dependent variable:

Research Answer 7: High school principals with degrees in gifted education are more likely to be innovative that high school principals without degrees in gifted education.
Independent variable:

Dependent variable:

Research Answer 8: Grade point average and intelligence test scores are moderately correlated.

Variables (Note: This is correlation research. Correlation research does not label variables as independent and dependent. Just list the two variables.):

#9: Develop a hypothetical study that measures differences in groups. List the following for your study: